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[ID:4-6913031] [精]2020年高中英語二輪復習非謂語動詞專題---動詞不定式完全解析與提升訓練( ...
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[ID:4-6913031] [精]2020年高中英語二輪復習非謂語動詞專題---動詞不定式完全解析與提升訓練( ...

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中小學教育資源及組卷應用平臺 高中英語一輪復習非謂語動詞專題---動詞不定式完全解析與提升訓練 不定式的常見功能 動名詞具有名詞、形容詞、副詞的作用,因而其能在句子中作主語、賓語、補足語、表語、定語、狀語。 ①不定式作主語 不定式作主語相當于名詞或代詞的作用。用作主語的動詞不定式通常表示一個具體的、特定的行為,其謂語動詞用第三人稱單數形式。不定式作主語通常用it作形式主語,而將不定式后置。 To learn English well is very difficult. =It is very difficult to learn English well. ②不定式作賓語 作動詞的賓語 不定式一般作動詞的賓語。如果作賓語的不定式有賓語補足語時,常用it作形式賓語,而將正的賓語后置。 I happen to know the answers to your questions. I find it impossible to change her idea. 常見只能跟動詞不定式作賓語的(短語)動詞 afford負擔得起 agree同意 decide決定 determine決定 expect期望 hope希望 manage設法做 refuse拒絕 want想要 believe相信 wish希望 offer主動做 pretend假裝 intend打算 promise答應 mean打算 prepare準備 ask叫、讓做 prove證明 fail失敗 作介詞的賓語 不定式一般不作介詞的賓語,而是需要加上疑問詞,但except,but等介詞后也可直接用動詞不定式作賓語。 I’m worried about how to pass the exam. He has no choice but to leave. ③ 不定式作賓語補足語 大多數及物動詞后用帶to的動詞不定式作賓補。 He persuaded me not to smoke any more. 常見跟帶to的不定式作賓補的(短語)動詞 persuade說服 allow允許 order命令 teach教 Ask要求 want想要 invite邀請 forbid禁止 cause導致 encourage鼓勵 tell告訴 warn警告 advise建議 expect期望 would like愿意 使役動詞和感官動詞用于主動語態時,作賓補的不定式省略to,但當這些詞用于主動語態時to不可省略(let除外)。 My parents always make me do my homework before I get out. (在主動句中,用個“感官動詞、使役動詞+賓語+不帶to的不定式結構”) My friend was made to work for the whole night by the boss. (感官動詞/使役動詞用于被動結構時,需還原省略的不定式符號to) 常見的感官動詞和使役動詞可以歸納為:一感(feel),二聽(hear, listen to),三讓(let, make, have),四 看(see, watch, notice, look at) ④ 不定式作表語 不定式作表語,表示主語的具體內容,如職業、職責或性質等,也可以表示目的、愿望等。不定式作表語通可以和主語位置互換。 My dream is to be a doctor. =To be a doctor is my dream. 表語時不定式時,主語表示條件,表語表示目的或結果。 注: 如果作表語的不定式時解釋主語中do的具體內容,不定式中的to可以省略。 All I did was (to) turn off the gas. ⑤不定式作定語 不定式作定語時,必須要放在被修飾詞后面, 如果被修飾的名詞是作定語的不定式的邏輯主語,則該不定式可帶自己的賓語或或介詞賓語等。 Liu Yang is the first Chinese astronaut to enter the space.(主謂關系) 如果被修飾的名詞是作定語的不定式的邏輯賓語,而該不定式又是及物動詞時,其后不能再接賓語。 The important thing is to get some work to do. (動賓關系) 注: 在way, method, opportunity等名詞后可用不定式作定語。也可用of doing結構作作定語。 What’s the best way to solve/of solving this problem.? 如果被修飾的名詞是作定語的不定式的邏輯賓語,而該不定式又是不及物動詞時,要在不定式后加相應的介詞。 They could not find a place to live in. (動賓關系) He has got a writing pen to write with. ⑥不定式作狀語 不定式作狀語主要表示目的、原因、結果等。不定式作原因狀語,常用在sorry, surprised, disappointed, excited, glad等表示情感的詞后面。 表示目的常位于句首,表示原因和結果常位于句尾。 To arrive there on time, I got up one hour earlier than usual. (作目的狀語) They jumped with joy to hear the news. (作原因狀語) He woke up only to find everybody gone. (作結果狀語) 可在作目的狀語的不定式前加上in order或so as,以突出或強調目的。in order to=so as to, 但是so as to不能置于句首。在作結果狀語時,動詞不定式常用于too.. to, enough… to, only to 結構中。其中,only to 后面表示出乎意料的結果。 In order to keep warm, we shut all the windows. John came home only to find that something has been stolen. ⑦作獨立成分 這種不定式獨立于句外,表示說話者的態度、語氣等,又稱為評論性狀語。 To be honest, I don’t like him very much. 常用作獨立成分的不定式短語 to begin with首先 to start with首先 to be frank 坦誠地說 to be honest老實說 to speak frankly坦誠地說 to tell you the truth說實話 不定式的其他用法 ①“疑問詞+ 不定式”結構 who(m), what, which等疑問代詞和when, where, how等疑問副詞放在不定式前便構成了“疑問詞+ 不定式”結構。這種結構相當于一個名詞,常在句中作主語、表語、賓語(尤其是介詞后面的賓語)等。 How to solve this problem is very important. (作主語) The question is who to turn to. (作表語) The teacher is telling the students what to do. (作賓語) My teacher gave me lots of advice on how to make friends. (作介詞的賓語) ②不定式的復合結構 為了說明不定式所表示的動作執行者,需在其前加上邏輯主語,邏輯主語常由for或of引出。帶邏輯主語的不定式稱為不定式的復合結構,通常用于“It is + 形容詞+for/of sb to do sth”句型中。 for sb句型中,通常使用表示客觀情況的形容詞,描述不定式的特征,常見的此類形容詞有: easy difficult important necessary possible dangerous hard interesting good We think it too difficult for a child to understand the article. of sb句型一般使用表示主觀態度或情感的形容詞,描述不定式動作執行者的性質、身份、特征。常見的此類形容詞有: nice silly selfish honest rude careful kind friendly wise It is wrong of you to laugh at your classmates. ③不定式符號to的省略 某些固定結構或固定搭配中標需省略不定式符號to。常見的此類結構有: had better (not) do sth (不要)做某事 would rather do sth 寧愿做某事 Why not do sth? 為什么不做某事 can not but do sth 只好作某事 Could/Would/Can/Will you please (not) do sth 請你(不要)做某事 跟在表示“除..之外”意義的but, except之后的不定式,若but, except之前動詞有do的任何形式,通常省略動詞不定式符號to。常見的此類的結構有: do nothing but do sth 只好做某事 have nothing to do but do sth只能做某事 do anything but do sth絕不能做某事,只能做某事 can’t help but do sth 禁不住做某事 can’t choose but do sth 只能做某事 動詞help后接不定式作賓語或賓補,to可有可無。但是當主語是表示物的名詞或主語不能發出不定式所表示的動作時,需要加上to。 Will you help me (to) find my pen? Your rich experience will help you to find a good job. 兩個或多個不定式短語表示并列關系時,后面的動詞不定式符號to常被省略。 He doesn’t know whether to get married or (to) wait. 注: 如果多個不定式短語表示對比關系時乐虎电子游戏,則通常保留動詞不定式符號to。 They came not to save us, but to conquer us. ④不定式符號后動詞的省略和保留 為了避免與前面出現的動詞重復,可只用不定式符號to來代替不定式結構。 當不定式在ask, allow, tell, wish, permit, invite等動詞后面作賓補時,為了避免重復,通常只保留動詞不定式符號to,而把后面的動詞省略。 Why didn’t you come at six? You were told to (come a t six). 為了避免重復,在hope, wish, want, like, love, decide, plan, mean, prefer, have to, be able to, be going to, used to, be glad等(短語)動詞后面出現與上文相同的不定式,通常只保留動詞不定式符號to,而把其它部分省略。 Mr king lied to us because he had to. (省略了lie to us) 如果不定式為一般式“to be”或完成式“to have done”,省略時,不定式符號to后的助動詞be或have通常需要保留乐虎电子游戏,而省略后面的部分。 --Aren’t you a lawyer --No, but I used to be. ⑤不定式的主動形式表被動意義 不定式用主動形式表示被動意義常見于以下幾種情況: 不定式作定語與被修飾的名詞構成邏輯上的動賓關系,且與句中的另一名詞或代詞有主謂關系。 Please lend me a book to read. (read與book構成動賓關系,me與read構成主謂關系) 在“be+性質形容詞+不定式”結構中。常見的此類形容詞有:easy, interesting, safe, hard, pleasant, dangerous, difficult, comfortable, impossible等。 The question is not difficult to answer. 不定式與疑問代詞連用時。 I don’t know what to try next. 某些動詞的不定式與be連用作表語時。常見的此類動詞有:to blame(責備), to let(出租), to seek.(尋找) I was to blame for losing the game. This house is to let. 當不定式的邏輯主語不清楚或不是句子主語時。此時主動結構和被動結構都可以,此時在語義上并沒有多大區別。 There is a lot of work to do/to be done. 提升訓練 一、單項選擇 1.In addition to a healthy diet, you also need regular exercise _______ weight. A.losing B.having lost C.lost D.to lose 2.The discovery of gold in Australia led thousands to believe that a fortune_ . A.had been making B.was making C.was to be made D.would make 3.You needn't worry about the exam because most of the questions are easy________. A.working out B.to work out C.to be worked out D.being worked out 4.It is one of the important problems ______ tomorrow. A.to solve B.to be solved C.solved D.solving 5.Have you ever waited for your bus for a very long time, _____ by two or more buses arriving together? A.only to greet B.only greeted C.only to be greeted D.only greeting 6.. Teamwork is very important in modern society. ______ an effective team member, you need to develop a team attitude. A.Become B.Becoming C.Having become D.To become 7.Every minute is made full use of ______ our lessons before the exam. A.studying B.being studied C.to study D.to be studying 8.With a lot of difficult problems ________, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A.settled B.settling C.to settle D.being settled 9.There are lots of places of interest _____ in our city. A.needs repairing B.needing repaired C.needed repairing D. needing to be repaired 10.AIDS is said _______the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area in the past three years. A.that it is. B.to be. C.that it has been. D.to have been. 11.By no means____when we try to create a global brand. A.the cultural factor is to neglect B.is the cultural factor to neglect C.the cultural factor is to be neglected D.is the cultural factor to be neglected 12.(2015·北京)___________the early flight, we ordered a taxi in advance and got up very early. A.Catching B. Caught C.To catch D.Catch 13.In those days my family didn’t have enough room _________. A.to live B.living in C.to live in D.living 14.Our teacher always speaks slowly and clearly in class ______. A.so as to be understood B.in order to have understood C.so as to understand D.to understand 15.____,the student insists that he be separated from his desk-mate,who is naughty. A.To avoid being affected B.To avoid to be affected C.Avoiding being affected D.Avoiding to be affected 二、用所給詞的正確形式填空 16.Watch out! Don’t get close to the building ________ walls are being painted. 17.Dinosaurs lived on the earth tens of millions of years ago, long ________ humans came into being and their future seemed secure at that time. 18.From tomorrow, children younger than 12 ________ (allow) only to play the game for a maximum of one hour a day. 19.Great attention should be paid to ________(protect) the water from being polluted. 20.They are living with their parents for the moment because their own house ________(decorate). 21.The musicians were to play jokes on each other as well as play music,most of ________ was based loosely on the Beatles. 22.The container contains many kinds of fruits, apples________(include). 23.English in this story________(simplify) several times so far to make it easier for children to understand. 24.The farm ________(hand) down from his father to him last year. 25.The ancient Olympic Games were first held in Athens, in which only men from Greece had the right________(compete). 三、根據所給漢語意思完成句子 26.他在午夜醒來,聽了一會兒收音機。 He awoke ___________ ___________ and listened to the radio for a few minutes. 27.充足的睡眠會幫助我們從疲勞中恢復過來。 Having enough sleep will help _________ _________ _________ tiredness. 28.他發現使她改變主意是不可能的。 He found it impossible to make her __________ her ___________. 29.上周一,Tom說服他的朋友加入了俱樂部。 Last Monday, Tom __________ his friend to _________ the club. 30.事實上,以后再辦這件事情要容易得多。 __________, it would be much easier to do it later. 31.Vitamin D helps our bodies make a special chemical,and this special chemical, ________ ________, affects our brains, making us feel happy. 維生素D幫助我們的身體產生一種特殊的化學物質,而這種特殊的化學物質反過來又影響我們的大腦,使我們感到快樂。 32.It________ ________ ________how the ancient Egyptians could move the huge stone blocks to build those pyramids. 古埃及人如何移動這些巨大的石塊來建造金字塔,這仍然是個謎。 33.If they do not meet these requirements, they will not ________ ________ ________ graduate school, even if they have excellent undergraduate grades. 如果他們不符合這些要求,他們將不能被獲準進入研究生院,即使他們有優秀的本科成績。 34.Why waste time in this world________ ________the bad when we can look around us and see the wonderful things before us? 為什么浪費時間尋找不快,而看不到我們面前的美好事物呢? 35.The public’s confidence in personal information security is ________ ________ ________, because there is still a lack of sound privacy protection laws in place. 民眾對信息安全的信心正在下降,因為目前還缺乏健全的隱私保護法。 36.It was no use________ ________ ________ ________him, so I waved to him. 假裝沒看見他是沒有用的,所以我向他揮手示意。 37.________ ________ volunteering work, the couple led a busy and rich life after they retired. 忙于做志愿工作,那對夫婦退休后過著忙碌而充實的生活。(用本模塊所學單詞) 38.Carbon fiber might ________ ________ ________in the future because of its added strength. 碳纖維由于其增強的強度在未來可能是值得探索的(材料)。 39.________ ________ ________, our show was fully appreciated by the audience, mostly college students. 令我們寬慰的是,觀眾對我們的演出十分欣賞乐虎电子游戏,他們中大多數是大學生。 40.Riding in an elevator is an experience where we can unexpectedly meet people ________ ________we have nothing in common. (介詞+定語從句) 乘電梯是一種經歷,在那里我們可以意外地遇到一些人,盡管我們沒有任何共同點。 參考答案 一、單項選擇 1-5.DCBBC 6-10.DCCDD 11-15.DCCAA 二、用所給詞的正確形式填空 16.whose 17.before 18.will be allowed 19.protecting 20.is being decorated 21.which 22.included 23.has been simplified 24.was handed 25.to compete 三、根據所給漢語意思完成句子 26.at midnight 27.us recover from 28.change mind 29.persuaded join 30.Actually 31.in turn 32.remains a mystery 33.be admitted to/into 34.hunting /searching /seeking /looking for 35.on the decrease/decline 36.pretending not to see 37.Employed in 38.be worth exploring 39. To our relief 40.with whom 21世紀教育網 www.21cnjy.com 精品試卷·第 2 頁 (共 2 頁) HYPERLINK "http://21世紀教育網(www.21cnjy.com) " 21世紀教育網(www.21cnjy.com)
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